While going through my photos of the FX9 from IBC I came across this one of the cameras underside. I’m posting it because I think it helps underlines the fact that Sony clearly learnt a lot from the FS7 and other earlier cameras. It also I think shows how the PXW-FX9 is designed to be a step above the FS7.
While all the small screw and the shape of the bottom of the camera is almost exactly the same as an FS7 (so existing base plates etc can be used), the screws that secure the tripod fixing plate to the camera have been seriously upgraded. Instead of little tiny screws there are now 8 cap head bolts securing the plate to the cameras chassis.
This is clearly going to be stronger than the small screws on the FS7 and is a welcome upgrade. So much of the FX9 has been upgraded over the FS7 that it really is a very different camera and it feels much more substantial when you hold it. The image below is a picture of the FX9’s new magnesium alloy chassis.
So I’m sure you are by now aware that Sony have just launched a new camera, the PXW-FX9. I’m not going to repeat all the information that’s already in the press release or on the Sony website.
But instead I’m going to reflect a bit on what it’s actually like to work with, having been privileged enough to have spent a fair bit of time with various pre-production FX9’s (originally it was going to be all black and not the metallic grey that the production units will be).
Let’s be quite clear. The FX9 is not a souped up FS7 II. Although on the outside it may look similar, under the hood it is very, very different. For a start the full frame 6K sensor in the FX9 is completely new, designed specifically for this camera. What I find interesting about the sensor is that although the camera can’t do anamorphic and can only currently do 16:9 UHD (17:9 4K DCI will come in a later firmware update) it is a full height 4:3 sensor and it isn’t masked. So just maybe, anamorphic or other aspect ratios will be possible in the future. Talking to the engineers, anamorphic isn’t on the official road map, but it’s not a closed door.
My first thought was that the decision down sample from the full frame 6K to UHD and later 4K DCI is a little disappointing, as I am sure we would all love to have the ability to record in 6K as an option. But on the other, the way the down sampling helps to clean up the sensor output, reducing noise is very welcome.
You also have to remember that a camera like the FS7 that uses a 4K bayer sensor will not be producing an image with 4K resolution. Because of the way bayer sensors work, a 4K bayer sensor will result in a recording with luma resolution around 3K depending on what you are shooting. The chrom resolution will be even less than that. But start with a 6K sensor and the 4K recordings will actually be 4K resolution with better color resolution than possible form a 4K sensor. So the images from the FX9 do look sharper and have greater clarity than those from an FS7 because they are higher resolution. But the file size is exactly the same. No need to change your workflow, no need to store bigger files, but you have more recorded resolution and better color. Great for chroma key etc.
Perhaps one of the most striking differences in image quality between the FS7 and the FX9 is the lack of noise. When shooting S-Log3 the FX9 has much less noise at 4000 ISO than the FS7 at 2000 ISO. At 800 ISO the FX9 is just a little bit better again. There is less fixed pattern noise and less noise in the shadow areas. In practice what this means is that there is no need to offset the exposure when shooting log with the FX9 as there often is with the FS7. Like any camera using log you never want to be under exposed, but the FX9 works great at either of its base ISO for log producing clean largely noise free images.
This is a big deal because the FX9 also has a huge dynamic range, I’ve measured well over 14 stops using a DSC Xyla test chart and am not going to argue with Sony’s 15+ stop claim. I counted 16 steps on the chart from the FX9, but how useable the bottom 2 are is open to some debate. The FS7 only exhibited 14 steps when we measured the two cameras side by side and the difference between the 2 was clear to see, including all the extra noise in the FS7 images. In practice the combination of this huge dynamic range and low noise level means you get a greater usable highlight range than the FS7, FS5 or F5/F55 and you still retain an amazing shadow range. There’s no S-Log2 in the FX9 as S-Log2 can’t capture the cameras full dynamic range.
With the camera dealing so well with very big brightness and contrast ranges, what about color? While it’s possible to make almost any log camera look almost any way you wish, the question becomes – how easy is it to make it look nice? I’ve shoot quite a few short films with Sony’s Venice camera over the last 18 months and the footage from Venice is easy to work with, it’s hard to get it wrong with Venice. The FX9 is very, very similar. Straight out of the camera skin tones look good and contain lots of subtle texture and detail. When you use the s709 LUT highlights roll off in a pleasing, smooth manner. If you are given a choice between an FS7 and FX9 it will be an easy decision because the FX9 material is easier to work with in the grading suite. Take footage from the FX9 into ACES and it looks beautiful without any LUT or other correction.
One thing that really helps this is the ability to dial in any white balance you want, along with a tint shift, in the CineEI mode.
So far I have only been working with the class 300 XAVC files from the FX9. As many of my readers will know I am a big fan of 16 bit raw. So I am very excited about what this camera will be capable of delivering in the future when the 16 bit raw output is implemented. I think there is a bit of a question over “can you really call 6K down sampled to 4K raw – raw”? But, I think that provided it is still essentially the same data as produced by the sensor, just re-scaled, then yes, it is a kind of raw and it should bring amazing post production flexibility, provided it can be recorded in such a way that the file sizes remain manageable. Atomos have already announced that their Neon image processor is capable of handling the 16 bit raw at 4K and 120fps. So my guess would be that by the time the firmware updated needed to enable the raw becomes available there will be an affordable Shogun Neon recorder. Some have asked – what about using the R7 and X-OCN? Well that would be cool, but how many FX9 buyers want to spend $14K for an R7 with a couple of cards and a reader? Oh – hurry up Sony and Atomos – I want 16 bit, Full Frame, 120fps 4K now, not next year 🙂
One small down side of having to read out almost twice as many pixels when reading the sensor at 6K instead of 4K is that there is a bit more rolling shutter when using the 6K full frame mode. Of course nobody likes or wants this, me included. It isn’t terrible, the camera is still very usable in 6K, but you should be aware of it for any rapid pans or large amounts of horizontal motion. In the 4K super 35mm mode the rolling shutter is similar to the current FS7/F5 etc. The other restriction is the upper limit of 30fps in the 6K full frame mode. To address this, in a later firmware update, a 5K mode which uses 83% of the full frame sensor, half way between super 35mm and full frame, will be added. This will go up to 60fps when recording to UHD. I do like the fact that you can use the full frame readout for HD at up to 120fps. There is some pixel binning when in S&Q, but it looks like it’s being done really well and I’ve only really noticed artifacts on very bright specular highlights (and this is on pre-production cameras). More testing will be needed to see just how good this is. It certainly isn’t grainy like the FS7 is in S&Q.
Once again we see Sony’s variable ND filter system. This is the biggest variable filter they have done. When the ND filter isn’t engaged there is now an extra optical flat glass included between the lens and sensor to maintain a completely constant back focus distance. Because the sensor is attached to the variable ND filter system and fitted with a heatsink to maintain a constant temperature it isn’t possible to use IBIS as the assembly would be too heavy to move fast enough to compensate for motion. Instead The FX9 has a metadata system that will use the cameras built in motion sensors to record the cameras motion. Then you will be able to use this metadata to stabilise your footage in post production. This will work in Catalyst Browse from the day the camera becomes available for sale and Sony are working with Adobe etc to have plugins available for the major NLE’s soon after.
Even though the post production stabilization (which will be variable) needs to zoom into the image a bit, again it’s worth noting that because the full frame mode results in a recording with 4K higher resolution than say an F5 or FS7, even after the zoom in, the image still has higher resolution and better detail than most 4K bayer can deliver.
Talking of Catalyst Browse, there will also be a new version of Content Browser mobile for the FX9 that will allow you to remotely control the camera over wifi, better still the camera will provide a live video feed over the wifi link for monitoring on your phone or tablet. The latency isn’t terrible, around 4 frames. The camera body has wifi built in, no more need to add a dongle. If you want to stream over 4G or 5G then the new extension unit has a pair of USB ports for 2 mobile network dongles.
Ergonomically there have been some big improvements over the FS7. There are now many different ways to control the menu system (which is now laid out more like the Venice camera than the FS7). There is the joystick on the handgrip (which is now shaped more like the FS5 handgrip). There is a set of up/down, left/right, select push buttons on the side of the camera as well as my favourite which is a big jog dial knob that protrudes slightly from the front of the camera (ENG cameras used to have a knob like this and ot was great on them). This is just about big enough to be operated when wearing gloves.
Another improvement is the use of illuminated buttons for the buttons that select the various auto modes. When you select an auto function, such as auto gain, a light comes on to let you know it’s set to auto. Furthermore, you now have to press the button for a about 3 seconds to get it to switch into auto. This should help prevent accidental button bumps from putting the camera into a mode you don’t want to be in.
There’s no shortage of user assignable buttons on the FX9. Perhaps too many? The camera really is covered in buttons! But that does mean you can do some nice things like assign the high/low ISO range change to one of the buttons to switch instantly between base ISO’s.
The great news for those that shoot using CineEI and log is that LUT’s are available in S&Q when recording UHD up to 60fps. The bad news is that above 60fps, when you have to record at HD you can’t separate the LUT between monitor LUT and baking it in. However all is not lost because the camera has viewfinder gamma assist. This applies a vanilla Rec-709 LUT to the viewfinder. It’s only going to be on the viewfinder and it doesn’t change of you change the EI, but at least you don’t have to look at the S-Log image, you can still look at a correct 709 image. Given that because of it’s much lower noise levels I don’t feel that this camera needs the exposure offsets that the FS7 needs, this is not too bad a compromise. Most of the time you will be able to shoot at 800ISO/800EI or 4000ISO/4000EI, so the viewfinder gamma assist LUT will do the job – look in the viewfinder – if it looks right, it probably is right. Oh – and in addition, the S&Q HFR is much less noisy than from the FS7.
Another thing that will make S-Log3 shooters very happy is the ability to change the white balance beyond the 3 built in presets. You can dial in whatever white balance you want including a tint adjustment, just like Venice. You can also use a white or grey card to automatically set the white balance when shooting log. So getting rid of a green cast from dodgy LED lights will be much easier.
Then there’s the autofocus.
Damn you Sony – now I’m going to have to buy some new lenses! I have to admit, I have always looked down on autofocus as an inferior way to focus a video camera. Largely because I have never had a camera where the autofocus has worked as well as I would like. Sony’s little PXW-Z90 does have a very impressive autofocus system, but with a smaller sensor that is easier to do. Canon have pretty good autofocus on some of their cameras too. But the FX9 has me rethinking how I will approach focus for many shoots. It really is incredibly impressive. It is a hybrid phase and contrast based system that has phase detection sites across almost the entire sensor. It has been designed specifically for video. It has eye detection and face recognition, so you can tell exactly which face in a crowd you want it to focus on. It doesn’t hunt, it just locks on and holds focus. It’s also fully programmable so you can adjust the hold and release sensitivity as well as the focus shift speed. This allows you to make the way the auto focus works look like it’s being done by a human. Often autofocus is too fast, too snappy. You can have that too if you want, but having the ability to slow it down a touch really helps it feel much more natural.
For so many applications this amazing autofocus system is going to be a godsend. Gimbal and Stedicam users will benefit for a start. Anyone shooting fast moving people will benefit. I can see it being a huge help for me when shooting up in the arctic with bulky gloves and mittens or a fogged up and frozen viewfinder! I can see the FX9 finding a place on big budget movie shoots for shots where conventional focus method would otherwise prove challenging. But, you will need Sony E-Mount lenses to get the very best out of it, hence in part why Sony are also releasing new E-mount cine style lenses.
One more note: The camera does have genlock and timecode in/out – on the camera body. You don’t need the extension unit for TC in and out.
In case you haven’t realised by now, I am quite excited by the FX9. It ticks a lot of boxes. You get a state of the art full frame sensor with 15 stops of dynamic range. You have dual base ISO’s of 800 and 4000. You get Venice like color science. So the images look beautiful right out of the camera. Less noise means no need to offset your exposure so you can record more highlight information and shooting is easier. You retain E-Mount versatility, once again you can put just about any lens you want on the camera via low cost adapters. But now in addition you also get an amazing, truly useful autofocus system.
No change on the codec front or media, so that keeps life simple. But 16 bit raw in the future for what should be amazing image quality and post production flexibility (you will need the new XDCA FX9 extension unit for raw). I don’t need to buy new base plates as existing FS7 plates will fit, as will most top plates. There is a small change on the top of the camera as every opening now has water and dust sealing gaskets around it – the FX9 is very well sealed against bad weather and dust. So some FS7 top plates may not fit around the hole where the handle plugs in.
It takes the same BP-U batteries, so I don’t need to buy different batteries. But it does use more power, around twice as much as the FS7. The penalty you have to pay for a bigger sensor with more pixels and more processing power for LUT’s in more modes.
The viewfinder is much improved. It still has the same square rods as the FS7 MkII, which won’t be to everyone’s taste. But the display is now sharper and that makes focussing much easier. The new screen is 720P (the FS7 is 540P I think). So it’s already clearer and sharper. But on top of that the peaking has been improved and better still the focus mag is now very good. Zoom in and it doesn’t go all blocky and muddy, it remains clear and sharp.
There isn’t much not to like about the FX9 when you consider the price. If my clients could afford it I would love to have a Venice. But the reality is few of them can afford Venice. Besides, Venice is big and heavy. For my travels and adventures I think the FX9 is going to be a perfect fit and I can’t wait to shoot some more with one.
There is a video on YouTube right now where the author claims that the Sony Alpha cameras don’t record correctly internally when shooting S-Log2 or S-Log3. The information contained in this video is highly miss-leading and the conclusion that the problem is with the way Sony record internally is incorrect. There really isn’t anything wrong with the way Sony do their recordings. Neither is there anything wrong with the HDMI output. While centered around the Alpha cameras the information below is also important for anyone that records S-Log2 or S-log3 externally with any other camera.
Some background: Within the video world there are 2 primary ranges that can be used to record a video signal.
Legal Range uses code value 16 for black and code value 235 for white (anything above CV235 is classed as a super-white and these can still be recorded but considered to be beyond 100%).
Full or Data Range uses code value 0 for black and code value 255 for white or 100%.
Most cameras and most video systems are based on legal range. ProRes recordings are almost always legal range. Most Sony cameras use legal range and do include super-whites for some of the curves such as Cinegammas or Hypergammas to gain a bit more dynamic range. The vast majority of video recordings use legal range. So most software defaults to legal range.
But very, very importantly – S-log2 and S-log is always full/data range.
Most of the time this doesn’t cause any issues. When you record internally in the camera the internal recordings have metadata that tells the playback, editing or grading software that the S-Log files have been recorded using full range. Because of this metadata the software will play the files back and process them at the correct levels. However if you record the S-Log with an external recorder the recorder doesn’t always know that what it is getting is full range and not legal range, it just records it, as it is, exactly as it comes out of the camera. That then causes a problem later on because the externally recorded file doesn’t have the right metadata to ensure that the full range S-Log material is handled correctly and most software will default to legal range if it knows no different.
Lets have a look at what happens when you import an internally recorded S-Log2 .mp4 file from a Sony A7S into Adobe Premiere:
A few things to note here. One is Adobe’s somewhat funky scopes where the 8 bit code values don’t line up with the normally used IRE values used for video productions. Normally 8 bit code value 235 would be 100IRE or 100%, but for some reason Adobe have code value 255 lined up with 100%. My suspicion is that the scope % scale is not video % or IRE but instead RGB%. This is really confusing. A further complication is that Adobe have code value 0 as black, again, I think, but am not sure that this is RGB code value 0. In the world of video Black should be code value 16. But the scopes appear to work such that 0 is black and that 100 is full scale video out. Anything above 100 and below 0 will be clipped in any file you render out.
Looking at the scopes in the screen grab above, the top step on the grey scale chart is around code value 252. That is the code value you would expect it to be, that lines up just nicely with where the peak of an S-Log2 recording should be. This all looks correct, nothing goes above 100 or below 0 so nothing will be clipped.
So now lets look at an external ProRes recording, recorded at exactly the same time as the internal recording and see what Premier does with that:
OK, so we can see straight away something isn’t quite right here. In an 8 bit recording it should be impossible to have a code value higher that 255, but the scopes are suggesting that the recording has a peak code value of something around CV275. That is impossible, so alarm bells should be ringing. Something is not quite right here. In addition the S-Log2 appears to be going above 100, so that means if I were to simply export this as a new file, the top of the recording will be clipped and it won’t match the original. This is very clearly not right.
Now lets take a look at what happens in Adobe Premiere when you apply Sony’s standard S-Log2 to Rec-709 LUT to a correctly exposed internal recording:
This all looks good and as expected. Blacks are sitting down just above the 0 line (which I think we can safely assume is black) and the whites of the picture are around code value 230 or 90, whatever that means. But they are certainly nice and bright and are not in the range that will be clipped. So I can believe this as being more or less correct and as expected.
So next I’m going to add the same standard LUT to the external recording to see what happens.
OK, this is clearly not right. Our blacks now go below the 0 line and they look clipped. The highlights don’t look totally out of place, but clearly there is something going very, very wrong when we this normal LUT to this correctly exposed external recording. There is no way our blacks should be going below zero and they look crushed/clipped. The internal recording didn’t behave like this. So what is going on with the external recording?
To try and figure this out lets take a look at the same files in DaVinci Resolve. For a start I trust the scopes in Resolve much more and it is a far better programme for managing different types of files. First we will look at the internal S-Log2 recording:
Once again the levels of the internal S-Log2 recordings look absolutely fine. Our peak is around code value 1010 which would be 252 in 8 bit. Right where the brightest bits of an S-log2 file should be. Now lets take a look at the external recording.
If you compare the two screen grabs above you can see that the levels are exactly the same. Our peak level is around CV1010/CV252, just where it should be and the blacks look the same also. The internal and external recordings have the same levels and look the same. There is no difference (other then perhaps less compression and fewer artefacts in the ProRes file). There is nothing wrong with either of these recordings and certainly nothing wrong with the way Sony record S-Log2 internally. This is absolutely what I expect to see.
BUT – I’ve been a little bit sneaky here. As I knew that the external recording was a full range recording I told DaVinci Resolve to treat it as a full range recording. In the media bin I right clicked on the clip and under “clip attributes” I changed the input range from “auto” to “full”. If you don’t do this DaVinci Resolve will assume the ProRes file to be legal range and it will scale the clip incorrectly in the same way as Premiere does. But if you tell Resolve the clip is full range then it is handled correctly.
This is what it looks like if you allow Resolve to guess at what range the S-Log2 full range clip is by leaving the input range setting to “auto”:
In the above image we can see how in Resolve the clip becomes clipped because in a legal range recording anything over CV235/CV940 would be an illegal super white. Resolve is scaling the clip and pushing anything in the original file that was above CV235/CV940 off the top of the scale. The scaling is incorrect because Resolve doesn’t know the clip is supposed to be full range and therefore not scaled. If we compare this to what Premiere did with the external recording it’s actually very similar. Premiere also scaled the clip, only Premiere will show all those “illegal” levels above it’s 100 line instead of clipping then as Resolve does. That’s why Premiere can have those “impossible” 8 bit code values going up to CV275.
Just to be complete here, I did also test the internal .mp4 recordings in Resolve switching between “auto” and “full” range and in both cases the levels stayed exactly the same. This shows that Resolve is correctly handling the internally record full range S-Log as full range.
What about if you add a LUT? Well you MUST tell Resolve to treat the S-Log2 ProRes clip as a full range clip otherwise the LUT will not be right, if your footage is S-Log3 you also have to tell Resolve that it is full range:
Both the internal and external recordings are actually exactly the same. Both have the same levels, both use FULL range. There is absolutely nothing wrong with Sony’s internal recordings. The problem stems from the way most software will assume that the ProRes files are legal range. But if it’s an S-Log2 or S-Log3 recording it will in fact be full (data) range. Handling a full range clip as legal range means that highlights will be too high/bright or clipped and blacks will be crushed. So it’s really important that your software handles the footage correctly. If you are shooting using S-Log3 this problem is harder to spot as S-Log3 has a peak recording level that is well with the legal range, so you often won’t realise it’s being scaled incorrectly as it won’t necessarily look clip. If you use LUT’s and your ProRes clips look crushed or highlights look clipped you need to check that the input scaling is correct. It’s really important to get this right.
Why is there no difference between the levels when you shoot with a Cinegamma? Well when you shoot with a cinegamma the internal recordings are legal range so the internal recordings get treated as legal range and so do the external recordings, so they don’t appear to be different (In the YouTube video that led to this post the author discovers that if you record with a normal profile first and then switch to a log profile while recording the internal and external files will match. But this is because now the internal recording has the incorrect metadata, so it too gets scaled incorrectly, so both the internal and external files are now wrong – but the the same).
Once again: There is nothing wrong with the internal recordings. The problem is with the way the external recordings are being handled. The external recordings haven’t been recorded incorrectly, they have been recorded as they should be. The problem is the edit software is incorrectly interpreting the external recordings. The external recordings don’t have the necessary metadata to mark the files as full range because the recorder is external to the camera and doesn’t know what it’s being sent by the camera. This is a common problem when using external recorders.
What can we do in Premiere to make Premiere work right with these files?
You don’t need to do anything in Premiere for the internal .mp4 recordings. They are handled correctly but Premiere isn’t handling the full/data range ProRes files correctly.
My approach for this has always been to use the legacy fast color corrector filter to transform the input range to the required output range. If you apply the fast color corrector filter to a clip you can use the input and output level sliders to set the input and output range. In this case we need to set the output black level to CV16 (as that is legal range black) and we need to set output white to CV235 to match legal range white. If you do this you will then see that the external recording appears to have almost exactly the same values as the internal recording. However there is some non-linearity in the transform, it’s not quite perfect. So if anyone knows of a better way to do this do please let me know.
Now when you apply a LUT the picture and the levels are more or less what you would expect and almost identical to the internal recordings. I say almost because there is a slight hue shift. I don’t know where the hue shift comes from. In Resolve the internal and external recordings look pretty much identical and there is no hue shift. In Premiere they are not quite the same. The hue is slightly different and I don’t know why. My recommendation – use Resolve, it’s so much better for anything that needs any form of grading or color correction.
I’m sitting here in the UK, Its February and it almost 20c (68f). Very nice indeed for the UK this time of year. Just a couple of weeks ago I was in Northern Norway, up above the arctic circle running one of my annual Northern Lights adventure tours. The weather there was very different. At no time did the temperature get above -15c(5f) and for most of the trip it was around -24c(-11f) both during the day and during the night.
Now, you might consider me a sadist when I say this, but for my Northern Lights trips I normally want it to be -20c or colder. The reason being that when it’s very cold like this we normally get beautifully clear skies. And we need clear skies to see the Aurora.
After many years of taking a full size video camera up to Norway I decided to go light this year and just take my trusty A7S and A6300 cameras. We get around on snow scooters and on sledges towed behind the snow scooters. This can make lugging around a larger camera tricky and there are times when you just can’t take a big camera. But in order to get the very best from these cameras I also decided to take an Atomos Ninja V.
The Ninja V is the first of a new generation of recorders and monitors from Atomos. It’s much smaller than the Shogun range of recorders making it a better size and weight match for smaller cameras and DSLR’s. It has a very, very nice 5″ screen with a maximum brightness of 1000 Nits. The 1000 Nit output and Atomos’s clever way of driving it means it can display both SDR and HDR images depending on how it is set up. A key difference between the Shogun and the Ninja devices is that the Shoguns have both SDI inputs and HDMI inputs while the Ninja only has an HDMI input. But if your using this with a DSLR than only has an HDMI output, as I was, the lack of SDI connectors is not a problem.
The build quality of the Ninja V is really good. Most of the body is made of aluminium. The rear part where the slots for the SSD and battery are is made from plastic, but it appears to be a good high quality and tough plastic. A new feature is an “AtomX” expansion port tucked inside the battery compartment. The expansion port allow different modules to be attached to the Ninja V to add functionality such a video over IP (ethernet) using the Newtek NDI protocol for live streaming or to turn the Ninja V into an IP connected monitor. There is also an AtomX sync module that allows you to wirelessly synchronise timecode and control multiple Ninja V”s on a single network and to use Bluetooth remote control. You can find out more about the AtomX modules here https://www.atomos.com/AtomX
Anyway – back to Norway. We were very lucky with the weather, and with the Northern Lights. On the first night at the cabins we stay at the Aurora put on a pretty good display. I was shooting with my Sony A7S with a Sigma Art 20mm f1.4 lens. I was shooting a mix of time-lapse, in which case I simply record the raw frames in the camera on it’s internal SD cards as well as real time video.
The Northern Lights are only rarely very bright. Most of the time they are fairly dim. So I was using the Sigma lens wide open, shooting at 24fps and with the shutter at 1/24th. The adjusting the cameras ISO to get a nice bright image. At times this did mean I was using some very high ISO’s with a lot of gain. Shooting like this is going to put a lot of strain on any codec. But the Long GOP XAVC-S codec used in the A7S is going to be very hard pushed to not introduce a lot of additional artefacts. In addition my older original A7S can only record HD internally.
By using the Ninja V I was able to record video of the Northern Lights in 4K using the ProRes codec. I used ProRes HQ and ProResHQ uses much less compression than XAVC-S. So even though both the internal recordings and the external recordings are limited to 8 bit (due to the cameras HDMI output limitations rather than any limitation of the Ninja) the ProRes recordings are far more robust and will noise reduce in post much better than the XAVC-S.
When you’re working outside for extended periods and it’s -27c(-17f) it’s tough on the gear and tough on you. When shooting the Aurora my camera are outside all night, exposed to the cold. Typical problems include frost and ice on the front element of the lens. The moisture from your own body can easily freeze onto the lens if you stand close to the camera. If you look at the lens to check it for frost and breath out you will leave it coated in ice.
Wires and cables that are soft and flexible in normal temperatures become as stiff as steel rods and can crack and fracture if you try to bend them. All batteries will loose some of their capacity. Very small batteries are worst affected. Larger batteries tend to fair a bit better, but there is a tremendous difference between the way most cheap budget batteries behave in the cold to good quality brand name batteries. For this reason I power my complete setup from a single PAG PAGLink V-Mount battery. The PAGlink batteries are great for all sorts of different applications, but for these trips a big benefit is that a small plug type charger can be used to charge many PAGlink batteries by stacking the batteries together. Then to power multiple devices I use the clip-on PAG Power hub plate to provide 5V for the camera battery adapters that I use, 12V for the lens heaters I use and another 12V feed for the Ninja V.
After more than a few minutes outside the camera kit itself will have become extremely cold. If you then take that kit inside into a nice warm cabin the warm moist air in the cabin will condense onto the cold camera body. Because the camera body will be extremely cold this will then freeze. Before you know it the camera kit is covered in ice. What you can’t see is that it’s likely that there will also be some ice and moisture inside the camera. It can take hours to warm the camera back up again and get it dried out properly. Bagging the camera before you take it indoors can help, but taking the camera in and out many times over the coarse of a shoot like this can cause a lot of damage. So I prefer to leave all the camera kit outside for the duration of the trip.
This means that when you come to fire it up you are often trying to switch on an absolutely frozen camera. In the past I have had problems with cold recorders that wouldn’t start up. But I’m pleased to report that the Ninja V always came to life no matter how cold it was. Whenever I pressed the record button it went into record. Operating the touch screen in the cold was not an issue. In fact using touch screen gloves, the Ninja was really easy to use. Pressing small fiddly buttons isn’t easy, even with thin gloves, but the touch screen turned out really easy to work with.
A big change on the Ninja V over previous models is the operating system. The new operating system looks really good and is quite logically laid out. Gone is the old AtomHDR slider that changes the brightness of the screen when in HDR. This is replaced with dedicated viewing modes for Native, 709, PQ HDR and HLG HDR and viewing via a LUT. I prefer the new fixed HDR modes over the Atom HDR slider modes as it eliminates the uncertainty that can sometimes creep in when you use a slider to change the brightness of the display. In my case, when shooting during the day using S-Log2 I would simply select S-Log2 as the source and then use PQ to display an HDR image on the screen. At night when shooting the Aurora I used Rec-709.
The Ninja V can take the same size 2.5″ SSD caddies as the current Shogun recorders. So I was able to use the SSD’s that I already own. However to keep the size of the recorder down it has been designed around a new slightly shorty SSD form factor called SSDMini. When you use a standard size 2.5″ SSD it does stick out from the side of the recorder by about 25mm. If you use an SSDMini it doesn’t stick out at all. SSDMini’s are currently being manufactured by Angelbird and Sony. They have the same sata connector as regular 2.5″ SSD’s and the SSDMini’s can also be used on the larger Atomos Shoguns.
By the time we were ready to leave Norway we had seen the Northern Lights on 3 different nights. By day we had seen some beautiful sunrises as well as other optical effects like sun dogs caused by the light from the sun being refracted by ice crystals in the air. The Atomos Ninja V had impressed me hugely. It just worked perfectly despite the extreme cold. It allowed me to record at higher quality than would have been possible without it and turned out to be easy to operate. What more can you want really?
This has been asked a couple of times. How do I record the slow motion S&Q output of my PXW-FS5 to an external recorder if I don’t have the raw option or don’t want to use raw.
Well it is possible and it’s quite easy to do. You can do it with either an SDI or HDMI recorder, both will work. The example here is for the new Atomos Ninja V recorder, but the basic idea is the same for most recorders.
Just to be absolutely clear this isn’t a magic trick to give you raw with a conventional non raw recorder. But it will allow you to take advantage of the higher quality codec (normally ProRes) in the external recorder.
Oh and by the way – The Ninja V is a great external monitor and recorder if you don’t want raw or you need something smaller than the Inferno.
So here’s how you do it:
In the camera menu and “Rec Set” – set the file format to XAVC HD and the Rec Format to 1080/50p or 1080/60p it MUST be 50p or 60p for this to work correctly.
In “Video Out” select the HDMI (for the Ninja, if you recorder has SDI then this works with SDI too).
Set the SDI/HDMI to 1080p/480i or 1080p/560i it MUST be p not i
Set HDMI TC Output to ON
Set SDI/HDMI Rec Control to ON
Connect the Ninja (or other recorder) via HDMI and on the Ninja under the input settings set the record trigger to HDMI – ON. If you are using a recorder with SDI you should have similar options for the SDI input.
So now what will happen is when you use the S&Q mode at 100fps or higher the camera will act as normally, you will still need a SD card in the camera. But when the camera copies the slow motion footage from the internal buffer to the SD card the external recorder will automatically go into record at the same time and record the output stream of the buffer. Once the buffer stream stops, the recorder will stop.
The resulting file will be 50p/60p. So if you want to use it in a 24/25/30p project and get the full slow-mo benefit you will need to tell the edit software to treat the file as a 24/25/30p file to match the other clips in your project. Typically this is done by right clicking on the clip and using the “interpret footage” function to set the frame rate to match the frame rate of your project or other footage.
And that’s it. It’s pretty simple to do and you can improve the quality of your files over the internal recordings, although I have to say you’ll be hard pushed to see any difference in most cases as the XAVC is already pretty good.
it, camera base plates are not really very exciting things. But they are very
necessary additions to most peoples kit, especially for any of the full size
super 35mm digital cinema cameras. From Red’s to F55’s to FS7 etc, they will
almost always need some form of base plate at some point.
So what’s different about the Vocas sliding system?
A complete Vocas sliding base plate system comprises two main parts. The first bit attaches to the camera and that will be either a generic flat camera mounting adapter plate or a custom camera mounting plate for cameras that don’t have flat bases, for example the FS7 or Venice where the adapter follows the curve or shape of the bottom of the camera.
The second part is a shoulder mount, shoulder pad or tripod plate or generic flat mounting plate that the camera adapter smoothly and securely slides onto.
One of the first benefits of this system is that you can easily alter the position of the camera relative to the base plate or shoulder pad. This makes balancing the camera on your shoulder or on a tripod much easier. A large red level locks the two sliding parts securely in place and there is a safety release catch that must be pressed if you wish to separate the mounting plate from the base plate, so they can’t come apart by accident. However if you need to move the camera forwards or backwards relative to the mounting plate all you need to do is release the large red locking lever.
Another benefit of the system is that it is very quick to reconfigure if you need to. For example many cinematography accessories are mounted using 19mm rails rather than the lightweight 15mm rails often used with ENG or smaller rigs. Perhaps you have been shooting handheld where a lightweight 15mm setup works better. Using the Vocas sliding system you can have a light weight base plate with a comfortable shoulder pad, 15mm front and rear rails that will clip in and out of a VCT style quick release tripod plate attached to the camera for your handheld shots. Then when you need to go to a bigger lens perhaps and 19mm rods, you simply slide off the 15mm base plate and slide on the Vocas 19mm plate. Quickly transforming the camera into a heavy duty rig that will then attach to an Arri style tripod plate. Need to keep the 19mm rods but now need a shoulder pad? Well that’s easy too as there is a matching shoulder pad for the 19mm base plate. It’s all very quick and very easy.
It also means that if you have multiple cameras all you is a mounting plate on each of your cameras then you can use the same base plate on all your cameras just by sliding it on and off as needed, or swap between lot’s of different types of plates depending on your needs.
If you don’t need a base plate with rods etc and just need a quick way to mount your camera to a tripod then there is also a basic tripod adapter that the camera can be slid directly onto. This gives you a really secure, quick release, low profile mounting system that is free from the wobble that often plagues other quick release mounts. It’s ideal for crash cams, car mounts and car rigs. Or for those situations where you just need something quick and compact. This would also help keep the weight down for use on gimbals or perhaps a stedicam. Need to go back to a shoulder mount or full tripod rig with rods, just slide the camera off the tripod plate and slide it on to your preferred 15mm or 19mm shoulder plate.
Nice touches on the VCT type base plates are the adjustable height rod mounts and also an adjustable tensioner for the rear mounting spigot. Normally on a VCT base plate the rear spigot doesn’t do a great deal to add stability to the system, it just helps to loosely locate the base plate. However Vocas have added the ability to put some tension on to the rear spigot to help pull the camera down onto the VCT plate. This can greatly decrease, if not eliminate the wobble and flex that is all to common with these quick release plates.
really nice touch is that the attachment screws for the mounting plate and an
allen key for adjusting the height of the rod mounts can be stored inside the
base plate so you should never loose them.
Any downsides? Well yes, any 2 part system like this is going to be a little more complex with more parts and a bit more metal than a basic fixed mounting plate, so the sliding base plate ends up a touch heavier than the equivalent fixed position base plate. It’s not a big difference, but it does add a bit of weight. However in most cases I believe it’s worth it. Especially if you are swapping between 15mm and 19mm systems frequently. Being able to quickly and easily re-balance the camera when handheld and you change lenses is very nice.
If you have more than one camera it makes it easier to share different mounting systems between them. So while the initial cost may be a bit more, in the long run you only ever need to add new mounting adapters to keep using all the different base plates you have with extra cameras or new cameras.
As always with Vocas products the quality of the engineering is first class. The parts fit together beautifully. Only high quality materials are used and the finish is very nice. So if you are looking for a really nice base plate for your camera – or cameras – do take a look at the Vocas sliding system. It’s really very well thought out and something that will last for a very long time.
I have a good relationship with the guys at Vocas. I had been shown this system
at various trade shows and it looked interesting, so I approached Vocas for the
loan of a review system so I could write this article.
Coming just a few days after the release of the Venice version 3 firmware, Sony have just released details of the next major Venice update which is planned to be released in June of this year. Last year when Sony started talking about HFR (high frame rates) for Venice it was expected that 4K would reach at least 96fps. However it has now been confirmed that the version 4 update will include the option to purchase an HFR licence that will allow you to shoot in 4K at up to 120fps.
It is worth noting however that 120fps will only be available when shooting 2.39:1. When shooting 17:9 the limit will be 110fps, still better than the originally promised 96fps. As well as 4K HFR you will also be able to shoot at 60fps in 6K 3:2 and 75fps 4K 3:2 ideal for use with 2x Anamorphic lenses.
The full press release is below:
Basingstoke, UK, 31st January 2019: Sony will be upgrading the capabilities of its next-generation motion picture camera system, VENICE, by introducing High Frame Rate (HFR) shooting, advanced remote-control functionalities and Cooke/i3 and Zeiss extended metadata support, as part of its latest firmware update. Following the recent release of VENICE’s firmware Version 3.0 and the upcoming launch of its Extension System (CBK-3610XS), which was developed in collaboration with James Cameron’s Lightstorm Entertainment and is currently being used to shoot the AVATAR sequels, the latest upgrade will offer filmmakers even greater creative freedom, flexibility and choice.
The new optional High Frame Rate license allows VENICE to shoot at speeds of up to 120fps at 4K 2.39:1, and 60fps at 6K 3:2 as well as up to 110fps at 4K 17:9 and 75fps at 4K 4:3 with anamorphic lenses. The new additional frame rates are particularly well-suited for drama, movie and commercial productions in 4K and 6K, as well as productions at 50/60p in 6K and VR productions using large viewing angle of 6K 3:2 in 60p. All High Frame Rates support X-OCN recording including X-OCN XT* implemented from Ver.3.0 and High Frame Rate up to 60fps support XAVC 4K and ProRes recording.
“At Sony, we pride ourselves on working closely with our customers and partners to create solutions that enable modern filmmakers to bring their vision to reality just the way they intend to. In fact, High Frame Rate shooting was a feature that was frequently requested by our customers. We listened to their feedback and are excited to now offer this feature to all new and existing VENICE users,” explained Sebastian Leske, Product Marketing Manager, Cinematography, Sony Professional Solutions Europe. “Last year at Cine Gear Expo, we announced that Version 4.0 will include 120fps in 2K. However, we are excited to announce today that, as a result of the hard work of our engineering team, Version 4.0 will now include 120fps in 4K. With firmware Version 4.0, our state-of-the-art VENICE will become even more powerful, fortifying its position as the go-to solution for cinematographers who want to create stunning imagery and capture emotion in every frame.”
Additionally, Version 4.0 of the VENICE firmware will introduce:
· 700 Protocol – A control protocol developed by Sony to connect VENICE to a remote-control unit (RM-B750 or RM-B170) and a RCP-1500 series remote control panel, giving filmmakers greater flexibility in bringing their visions to life. Further expanding on the camera’s existing remote-control capabilities, the VENICE now offers paint control, iris control, recording start/stop, clip control, and more. The upgraded remote-control function also adds new workflows to extend VENICE’s use in multi-camera and live production settings, such as live concerts and fashion shows.
· Support for Cooke’s /i third generation metadata Technology, /i3 and ZEISS eXtended Data technology (based on Cooke /i Technology) – Extended lens metadata can now be embedded straight into a RAW/X-OCN/XAVC file and HD-SDI output without the need for additional metadata equipment. The new function allows distortion and shading caused by supported lenses to be easily rectified, significantly reducing post-production costs.
Further features include an extended Mask+Line setting in the Frame line set-up, selectable functions for the assignable buttons of the DVF-EL200 viewfinder and pure Progressive HD-SDI output in 25p and 29p.
Both the free upgrade to firmware Version 4.0 and the optional HFR licence will be available in June 2019.
“Color Science” is one of those currently in fashion phrases that gets thrown around all over the place today. First of all – what the heck is color science anyway? Simply put it’s how the camera sees the colors in a scene, mixes them together, records them – and then how your editing or grading software interprets what is in the recording and finally how the TV or other display device turns the digital values it receives back into a color image. It’s a combination of optical filters such as the low pass filter, color filters, sensor properties, how the sensor is read out and how the signals are electronically processed both in the camera, by your edit/grading system and by the display device. It is no one single thing, and it’s important to understand that your edit process also contributes to the overall color science.
Color Science is something we have been doing since the very first color cameras, it’s not anything new. However us end users now have a much greater ability to modify that color science thanks to better post production tools and in camera adjustments such as picture profiles or scene files.
Recently, Sony cameras have sometimes been seen by some as having less advanced or poor color science compared to cameras from some other manufacturers. Is this really the case? For Sony part of the color science issue is that historically Sony have deliberately designed their newest cameras to match previous generations of cameras so that a large organisation with multiple cameras can use new cameras without having them look radically different to their old ones. It has always been like this and all the manufacturers do this, Panasonic cameras have a certain look as do Canon etc. New and old Panasonics tend to look the same as do old and new Canon’s, but the Canon’s look different to the Panasonics which look different to the Sony’s.
Sony have a very long heritage in broadcast TV and that’s how their cameras look out of the box, like Rec-709 TV cameras with colors that are similar to the tube cameras they were producing 20 years ago. Sony’s broadcast color science is really very accurate – point one at a test chart such as a Chroma DuMonde and you’ll see highly repeatable, consistent and accurate color reproduction with all the vectors on a vector scope falling exactly where they should, including the skin tone line.
On the one hand this is great if you are that big multi-camera business wanting to add new cameras to old ones without problems, where you want your latest ENG or self-shooters cameras to have the same colors as your perhaps older studio cameras so that any video inserts into a studio show cut in and out smoothly with a consistent look.
But on the other hand it’s not so good if you are a one man band shooter that wants something that looks different. Plus accurate is not always “pretty” and you can’t get away from the fact that the pictures look like Rec-709 television pictures in a new world of digital cinematography where TV is perhaps seen as bad and the holy grail is now a very different kind of look that is more stylised and much less true to life.
So Sony have been a bit stuck. The standard look you get when you apply any of the standard off-the shelf S-Log3 or S-Log2 LUT’s will by design be based on the Sony color science of old, so you get the Sony look. Most edit and grading applications are using transforms for S-Log2/3 based on Sony’s old standard Rec-709 look to maintain this consistency of look. This isn’t a mistake. It’s by design, it’s a Sony camera so it’s supposed to look like other Sony cameras, not different.
But for many this isn’t what they want. They want a camera that looks different, perhaps the “film look” – whatever that is?
Recently we have seen two new cameras from Sony that out of the box look very different from all the others. Sony’s high end Venice camera and the lower cost FS5 MKII. The FS5 MKII in particular proves that it’s possible to have a very different look with Sony’s existing colour filters and sensors. The FS5 MK II has exactly the same sensor with exactly the same electronics as the MK I. The only difference is in the way the RGB data from the sensor is being processed and mixed together (determined by the different firmware in the Mk1 and mk2) to create the final output.
The sensors Sony manufacture and use are very good at capturing color. Sony sensors are found in cameras from many different manufacturers. The recording systems in the Sony cameras do a fine job of recording those colors as data within the files the camera records as data with different code values representing what the sensor saw. Take that data into almost any half decent grading software and you can change the way it looks by modifying the data values. In post production I can turn almost any color I want into any other color. It’s really up to us as to how we translate the code values in the files into the colors we see on the screen, especially when recording using Log or raw. A 3D LUT can change tones and hues very easily by shifting and modifying the code values. So really there is no reason why you have to have the Sony 709 look.
My Venice emulation LUT’s will make S-Log3 from an FS5 or FS7 look quite different to the old Sony Broadcast look. I also have LUT’s for Sony cameras that emulate different Fuji and Kodak film stocks, apply one of these and it really looks nothing like a Sony broadcast camera. Another alternative is to use a color managed workflow such as ACES which will attempt to make just about every camera on the market look the same applying the ACES film style look and highlight roll-off.
We have seen it time and time again where Sony footage has been graded well and it then becomes all but impossible to identify what camera shot it. If you have Netflix take a look at “The Crown” shot on Sony’s F55 (which has the same default Sony look as the FS5 MK1, FS7 etc). Most people find it hard to believe the Crown was shot with a Sony because it has not even the slightest hint of the old Sony broadcast look.
If you use default settings, standard LUT’s etc it will look like a Sony, it’s supposed to! But you have the freedom to choose from a vast range of alternative looks or better still create your own looks and styles with your own grading choices.
But for many this can prove tricky as often they will start with a standard Sony LUT or standard Sony transform. So the image they start with has the old Sony look. When you start to grade or adjust this it can sometimes look wrong because you have perhaps become used to the original Sony image and then anything else just doesn’t seem right, because it’s not what you are used to. In addition if you add a LUT and then grade, elements of the LUT’s look may be hard to remove, things like the highlight roll off will be hard baked into the material, so you need to do need to think carefully about how you use LUT’s. So try to break away from standard LUT’s. Try ACES or try some other starting point for your grade.
Going forward I think it is likely that we will see the new Venice look become standard across all of the Cinema style cameras from Sony, but it will take time for this to trickle down into all the grading and editing software that currently uses transforms for s-Log2/3 that are based on the old Sony Rec-709 broadcast look. But if you grade your footage for yourself you can create just about any look you want.
I have recently returned from a trip around Canada. While I was there I spent some more time shooting with Sony’s new PXW-Z280 handycam camcorder. This neat little camera continues to surprise me. I used a pre-production sample to shoot parts of an airshow in the summer and it worked really well. It was so easy to use, I had forgotten how much quicker it is to work with a camera with a 17x zoom lens compared to a large sensor camera with a very limited zoom range or prime lenses.
The Z280 uses 3x state of the art EMOR Stacked multi layer sensors. Each is full 4K, so you have full RGB 4K, unlike a single chip camera where the chroma resolution is much reduced by the bayer layout of the pixels. The 3 chip, full resolution design also means no aliasing in the color channels as is often typical of single chip designs.
The color splitting prism is more efficient than the absorption color filters on a single chip design, so more light gets to the pixels. The multi layer sensors have very good on-sensor processing so even though the pixels are rather small you get good sensitivity, low noise and good DR. The Z280 is approx 650-700 ISO with the base gammas so very close to an FS7 with it’s standard gammas and the colors match an FS7 extremely well. The picture look really nice.
From the testing I have done in the cameras dedicated HDR mode, where you can choose between HLG and S-Log3, with S-Log3 the DR of the Z280 appears to be around 13 stops, which is really quite remarkable for this type of camcorder. The sensor readout is very fast so rolling shutter is minimal.
When you factor in the Z280’s f1.9 lens, compared to an FS7 with the Sony F4 zoom or many other zooms that are typically around F4 the Z280 with it’s f1.9 lens does better in low light and offers similar DoF when both are wide open. Of course you can change the lens on an FS7 and use a faster lens, but then you won’t have anywhere near the zoom range of the Z280.
Like any small compact camera, it isn’t 100% perfect. Overall the lens is pretty good for a low cost 4K zoom, but like many 17x zooms it does have a touch of barrel distortion when fully wide. As well as the LCD It has an excellent OLED viewfinder that is much, much better than those typically found on Sony’s smaller cameras. It has Timecode in/out and genlock, all the XAVC-I and L codecs as well as MpegHD. There is a full suite of wifi, LAN and network functions for streaming, ftp and remote control as well as the ability to offload files from the cards to a USB drive or memory stick without a computer. It’s a modern camera designed for the modern news or documentary shooter and a big step up in terms of image quality from the PXW-X200 IMHO.
A full review and sample video will be coming in the very near future with lot’s more information.
Last week I presented a Webinar in conjunction with Visual Impact on how to shoot ProRes Raw with Sony’s FS5 and FS7. The Webinar was recorded, so if you missed it you can now watch it online. It’s almost 2 hours long and contains what I hope is a lot of useful information including what you need, exposure and how to get the footage in to FCP-X. I tried to structure the FCP-X part presentation in such a way that those that don’t normally use FCP-X (like me) will be able to get started quickly and understand what is going on under the hood.
Since the webinar it has been brought to my attention by Felipe Baez (thanks Felipe) that it is possible to add a LUT after the color panel and grading tools by adding the “custom LUT” effect to your clip. To do this you will set the raw input conversion to S-log3. Then add your color correction, then add the Custom LUT effect.
A big thank you to Visual Impact for making this possible, do check them out!
Here is the link to the video of the webinar:
Camera setup, reviews, tutorials and information for pro camcorder users from Alister Chapman.